Meanwhile, the Old Testament prepares the believers for the “visible kingdom on earth” where God’s power will be shown and acknowledged by the people. 5:20; 7:21). The kingdom of God may therefore be regarded as a comprehensive Old Testament scheme, and the teaching of Jesus as a genuine and natural development of it.6 For all its attractiveness, however, this approach has not proved widely convincing. h�bbd``b`�$��7H�$��H��Ϙ� � *�� endstream endobj startxref 0 %%EOF 107 0 obj <>stream Two Revelations of God’s Kingdom in the Old Testament. Premillenarians believe that it is honoring to Scripture to allow it to mean what it appears to mean when taken literally and that it is just as wrong to explain away prophetic passages about the millennium as it is to explain away historic passages referring to the virgin birth, the resurrection of Christ, and other central doctrines of biblical faith. TynBul 40:2 (1989) p. 161. Behold, your king is coming to you; He is just and endowed with salvation, humble, and mounted on a donkey, even on a colt, the foal of a donkey. In defense of Adams, it may be pointed out that he is attempting only a relatively small paperback discussion of a large problem. And many nations will join themselves to the LORD in that day and will become My people. Jesus brought God’s rule and reign to the world in a very upside-down way, which is the best news you On p. 237 Bright admits that even in the Old Testament we see the “already” and the “not yet” of God’s kingdom. ���p endstream endobj 97 0 obj <>stream This is the point of tension between premillennial and amillennial interpretation. THE KINGDOM OF GOD IN THE OLD TESTAMENT, BY PROFESSOR F. B. DENIO, Bangor Theological Seminary, Bangor, Me. As in other prophecies, the center of the government will be Jerusalem and the central fact of the kingdom will be the abiding presence of the Lord on the earth. None of these views provides any reasonable literal fulfillment of the passages. Kingdom of God, also called Kingdom Of Heaven, in Christianity, the spiritual realm over which God reigns as king, or the fulfillment on Earth of God’s will.The phrase occurs frequently in the New Testament, primarily used by Jesus Christ in the first three Gospels. It is not the purpose of this article to provide a detailed refutation of amillennialism. Related with The Kingdom Of God In The Old Testament . The idea of the “Kingdom of God” starts early in the Old Testament. The Kingdom of God in the Old Testament: The Prophetic Hope from Ben Dunson Jun 13, 2015 Category: Articles When the northern and southern kingdoms of Israel went into exile the hope for God’s rule over the earth to be manifested in an Israelite king seemed to have come to nothing. Israel, either of two political units in the Old Testament: the united kingdom of Israel under the kings Saul, David, and Solomon that lasted from about 1020 to 922 bc; or the northern kingdom of Israel, including the territories of the 10 northern tribes (i.e., all except Judah and part of Benjamin), that was established in 922 bc as the result of a revolt led by Jeroboam I. But that theory does not provide an adequate explanation of these passages. Old Testament prophets, while under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, wrote about the Kingdom of God being established on earth (2 Peter 1:20-21). The prophecy concludes: Also I will restore the captivity of My people Israel, and they will rebuild the ruined cities and live in them, they will also plant vineyards and drink their wine, and make gardens and eat their fruit. Then the word of the LORD of hosts came saying, Thus says the LORD of hosts, I am exceedingly jealous for Zion, yes, with great wrath I am jealous for her. Nation will not lift up sword against nation, and never again will they learn war (Isa 2:2-4, NASB). 8 Jay Adams, The Time Is at Hand (Phillipsburg, NJ: Presbyterian & Reformed Publishing Co., 1970), p. 63. The phrase occurs frequently in the New Testament, primarily used by Jesus Christ in the first three Gospels. One of the most extensive passages by Isaiah refers to Christ’s coming and the characteristics of His reign on the earth: Then a shoot will spring from the stem of Jesse, and a branch from his roots will bear fruit. 173 MSJ 23/2 (Fall 2012) 173192 THE KINGDOM OF GOD IN THE OLD TESTAMENT William D. Barrick, Th.D. One of the better known of Isaiah’s pronouncements concerning the future kingdom is his prediction of Christ’s birth. The kingdom of God was one of Jesus’ most talked about topics, but it’s hardly a well-grasped concept for believers today. Part 2 of Interpreting Prophecy Today,” Bibliotheca Sacra 139 (April-June 1982): 124-25. Of course! This resurrection of David is promised by several other prophets and is related to the second coming of Christ. 173 MSJ 23/2 (Fall 2012) 173–192 THE KINGDOM OF GOD IN THE OLD TESTAMENT William D. Barrick, Th.D. . Obviously for an amillenarian to say summarily that no verse in the Bible teaches a future earthly kingdom is a dogmatic statement that needs to be examined. “The Kingdom of God” has fallen out of favor amongst modern scholars as the primary or sole theme of the Old Testament. For example, "his teaching was designed to show men how they might enter the Kingdom of God (Matt. 4:4-7), 3. Who is this King of glory? But does this satisfy the many references to a millennial Jerusalem? The Kingdom Of God In The Old Testament (1,860 View) Living The Kingdom Of God Lifestyle Journey From (1,430 View) Just Us Little Guys Series 6 Old Testament: (1,849 View) New Testament Teacher Resource Manual - The (1,556 View) Member Services Guide - Kingdom Advisors (961 View) *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. dom of God. Of 14 references to Isaiah, 9 are simply references in footnotes. Shout in triumph, O daughter of Jerusalem! And the nursing child will play by the hole of the cobra, and the weaned child will put his hand on the viper’s den. And I will cut off the chariot from Ephraim, and the horse from Jerusalem; and the bow of war will be cut off. BY PROFESSOR F. B. DENIO, Bangor Theological Seminary, Bangor, Me. Includes cross references, questions, teaching points, outline, and applications on 1 Kings 11-12. They knew that God created the world to become his kingdom, and that he will fill it with his glory, and that one day … That is when David will live and reign with Christ. The Search OF the Savior: Why Jesus Came, Part 2 (Gal. But when he tries to show how this “double manner of speaking” is different from what is true in the New Testament, he 4 As Pentecost and others have noted, the theme of the theocratic kingdom can be traced from the Garden of Eden through the period of human government initiated by Noah, the period of the patriarchs initiated by Abraham, the kingdom under the judges, the … In Christ and His true disciples that kingdom is already established, and in harmony with the confession of the church of all ages, not to establish an earthly, Jewish kingdom, Himself visible and bodily reigning in this semi-earthly, semi-heavenly realm of material existence, but for judgment. There are two main aspects of God’s kingdom that would be worthy of our study in the Old Testament: 1) The Eternal Kingdom. His birth has been fulfilled, but the establishment of His earthly government has not. 1 J. Dwight Pentecost, Things to Come (Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1958), pp. Inductive Bible study on the divided kingdom period in an Old Testament survey series. In the last days, the mountain of the house of the LORD will be established as the chief of the mountains, and will be raised above the hills; and all the nations will stream to it. Therefore I say to you, the kingdom of God will be taken away from you and given to a people, producing the fruit of it. 6 Earl Miller, The Kingdom of God and the Kingdom of Heaven (Meadville, PA: Earl Miller, 1950). Right from the start, God wanted the nation of Israel to be His kingdom: Exodus 19 verses 5 - 6 Verse 9 refers to “My holy mountain” and “the earth” being “full of the knowledge of the LORD.” To these prophecies Isaiah adds the graphic picture of judgment on earth in chapter 24 in connection with His earthly reign, He concludes, “Then the moon will be abashed and the sun ashamed, for the LORD of hosts will reign on Mount Zion and in Jerusalem, and His glory will be before His elders” (24:23 ). Every element of the Old Testament's unfolding revelation of the kingdom leads to the Per­son of Jesus Christ come in the flesh. Kingdom of God in the Old Testament. May he also rule from sea to sea, and from the River to the ends of the earth.” The universal submission of the kings of the world in the future theocratic kingdom is described in verses 10-11 , “Let the kings of Tarshish and of the islands bring presents, the kings of Sheba and Seba offer gifts. A physical throne? The goal of this discussion is to call attention to the many detailed prophecies related to the millennium which premillenarians feel have never been satisfactorily explained by the amillennial approach. Kingdom of God (Matt 3:2) by which he understood the coming of the Kingdom foretold in the Old Testament . And the LORD will possess Judah as His portion in the holy land, and will again choose Jerusalem. Some would be baptized with the Holy Spirit and experience the messianic salvation of the kingdom of God, while others would be baptized with the fires of … Child sacrifice was sometimes connected with Milcom. 7����:�#�����^��/J�BE�� �8N�h�1�_��&��b�p/�h��Tŷ:�cj~�9��N/_�'[j������2:ƤC���>���. The general idea of the kingdom of God is … Kingdom of God. It should be noted that this prophecy relates to “earth,” not heaven. Thus says the LORD of hosts, Behold, I am going to save My people from the land of the east and from the land of the west; and I will bring them back, and they will live in the midst of Jerusalem, and they will be My people and I will be their God in truth and righteousness. This national god of the Ammonites was associated with divination, seeking knowledge of the future through occult means, strongly forbidden by God. If you asked a group of people to define it, you would probably get a variety of answers. The "enthronement psalms" (Psalms 45, 93, 96, 97–99) provide a background for this view with the exclamation "The Lord is King". While there seems little doubt that the kingdom of God is the central tenet of Jesus' teaching,1in the Old Testament the role of the kingdom is much more problematic. The kingdom of God has its objective reality in Him. So, a proper understanding of the kingdom provides one of the most comprehensive and unifying perspectives we can have on the Old Testament. There will be no end to the increase of His government or of peace, on the throne of David and over his kingdom, to establish it and to uphold it with justice and righteousness from then on and forevermore. Basically, the Old Testament is saying that the entire universe, from the littlest to largest things, are His because God has dominion over them. And the streets of the city will be filled with boys and girls playing in its streets, Thus says the LORD Of hosts, If it is too difficult in the sight of the remnant of this people in those days, will it also be too difficult in My sight? In 2 sentences in a footnote he dismisses 11 passages in Isaiah as being already fulfilled, and he claims that his interpretation “can hardly be questioned.”8. 427-45. The essential Jewish understanding has been that through the Messiah, God will restore the Kingdom of Israel, following the Davidic covenant. The resurrected David who once reigned on the throne of Israel will serve as a prince under Christ, the King of kings. h�b```"%f��B cBWf;G���l��j �1���v8{�!������n��=�=�a`P�t��o~ ��s����6�����+7 Amillenarians often simply avoid passages that would contradict their conclusions or dismiss them by asserting dogmatically that the premillennial interpretation is wrong. This article was taken from the Theological Journal Library CD and posted with permission of Galaxie Software. Amillennial writings, which sometimes boldly state that not a single verse in the Bible teaches a kingdom of God on earth following the second coming of Christ, usually avoid the many Scriptures which have been cited in this article. We have already seen a number of prophecies which describe the Messiah as a king. The presence and coming of the Kingdom of God was the central message of Jesus. Thus says the LORD, I will return to Zion and will dwell in the midst of Jerusalem. Building on a number of New Testament passages, the Nicene Creed indicates that the task of judgement is assigned to Jesus.. No overall agreement on the theological interpretation of "Kingdom of God" has emerged among scholars. The Kingdom of God in the Old Testament by COG Messenger published on 2016-01-23T06:17:10Z. [John F. Walvoord, President and Professor of Systematic Theology, Dallas Theological Seminary]. The Gospels use the terms “kingdom of God” and “kingdom of heaven” to refer to this kingdom. “In his days may the righteous flourish, and abundance of peace till the moon is no more. Testament message concerning the kingdom of God. In these passages it is clear that David is not Christ. ��%X�� ”�g�qT"`�@������������4�W?s8$�+e8������J��G��.�����'�j�Yo!.�o��D�9�K!�Yss��+�ϗp���T�90� �4;zD2yZIr��~�ڼ��^uv�w�LeՂH9�Wg��/Z�����L���d\���H�6֏7=�.�����&��:ΗE�t0)������e^j�E��D[�A�_f�m�ڵl�rQ��y����l"���6/�頚�(�Z���T����X���|���%�F�ϖ��ݓ�TM���bݴ'�| a�q�F��O�q ��dw-&3Y?H��KMŞ���&��0T����;j�$ The Old Testament Hebrew word for ‘kingdom’ is malkûth. While there seems little doubt that the kingdom of God is the central tenet of Jesus’ teaching,1 in the Old Testament the role of the kingdom is much more problematic. The earliest example of the title king being used of God is in the 8th century B.C., "…. Finally, both spatial and temporal characteristics of the kingdom of God in the Old Testament are delineated. ����?�.��C�q�^j����������N~�o��#�=~O��/Y�8}#˟�pl��ؗ�~�n�:N:�!����G�����q猙��^CT_K;k*������ώѰtԭ��PI���5�w��d_�ƒ~��3��� ��;7��� ;J�w���,�� ��t�.�ξ�D�� N��bY����e?�!4}_� T]�'Y��FW��]ͮ� w� ��f3� m�R�K��c��_���? The kingdom of God in the Old Testament 176 In die Skriflig 35(2) 2001:173-189 applied to God or that God would frequently be the subject of the verb mlk (qal). For many scholars it remains a marginal element in Old Testament thought,2though others regard it as a major concept, found in a wide range of Old Testament authors and contexts. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.. 1979], p. 227). The phrase "kingdom of God" is not found in the Old Testament, and the idea of God as king does not appear in the wisdom literature, the prophets and much of the historical narratives. In recent times, the notion of the “kingdom of God” has received much interest by Old Testament scholars. … As Pentecost states, “Through this maze of interpretations it is almost impossible to make one’s way.”3. All the biblical promises find their fulfillment in Jesus Christ. In defining this Hebrew word in regards to God’s kingdom, George Ladd, says this: ‘God’s kingdom, His malkuth, is His universal rule, His sovereignty over all the earth.’ (The Gospel of the Kingdom, p20) An earthly temple? The answer is that it would teach a millennial kingdom. An illustration of this is the discussion by Jay Adams in his work, The Time Is at Hand. The word “gospel” ties the story of the Old Testament together with the story of Jesus and his announcement of God’s kingdom. -- Catherine McDowell, associate professor of Old Testament, Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary ― Catherine McDowell, associate professor of Old Testament, Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary While Christians everywhere dedicate themselves to inviting others into the kingdom of God, countless many (if they’re honest with themselves) find themselves mildly confused by the concept. Amillennialism nevertheless has appealed to many scholars in the ancient as well as in the modern church. The Kingdom of God is mentioned through the Old and New Testament of the Bible.As a Christian, it’s important to understand the meaning behind this phrase that is often confusing for many Christians and non-Christians. . To this Isaiah adds another point in Isaiah 32:1, “Behold a king will reign righteously, and princes will rule justly.” And in 33:20 , he describes Zion: “Look upon Zion, the city of our appointed feasts, your eyes shall see Jerusalem an undisturbed habitation, a tent which shall not be folded, its stakes shall never be pulled up nor any of its cords be torn apart.” Again, this prophecy has never been fulfilled in any way in the past; thus it requires a future fulfillment. But the sweeping dismissal of alternative views and the failure to recognize that there is a variety of contradictory amillennial interpretations are all too characteristic of amillenarians’ discussions. . The Jews Jesus preached to knew that God was king. 1 It is new in that “the Kingdom of God has become also the Kingdom of Christ, and that the Kingdom is actually at hand” instead of being only in the future as it was in the Old Testament (p. 198). However, Patrick still sees the Kingdom of God theme as a valid solo theme. Luke 12:32. And the Spirit of the LORD will rest on Him, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and strength, the spirit of knowledge and the fear of the LORD. Professor of Old Testament The Masters Seminary The child will be born on earth; the throne will be that of David; rule will be characterized by justice and righteousness; and it will be accomplished by the power of God rather than the power of men. The Kingdom of God began, not with Jesus’ preaching (for He was preaching what had been taught already from the earliest special revelation of God to Man, making it plain and “bringing it home”). Kingdom of God, also called Kingdom Of Heaven, in Christianity, the spiritual realm over which God reigns as king, or the fulfillment on Earth of God’s will. For the law will go forth from Zion, and the word of the LORD from Jerusalem. In his book he predicts a future kingdom with Jerusalem as its capital and involving the tribe of Judah. An unprejudiced reading of the Scripture renders one universal judgment, one universal resurrection. The kingdom of God over which David will reign after the second coming of Christ was predicted by Ezekiel. Professor of Old Testament The Master’s Seminary God’s kingdom program is … It is considered that everything He created and under controlled is His Kingdom. ��a�.�@��$x9��f�ػO�¼���D��>�3S�-x������@(+y�=�2�-"�?�ϫ8ty@�.A����3�6��_�’婟�����n��a�E���l����h`Af~ ������׏�_����� ���>�� �O�w_>|��m�˘Vi��s��'��ц�D"Jʽ���S���w�k�iۦ. Then I will dwell in your midst, and you will know that the LORD of hosts has sent Me to you. The LORD of hosts, He is the King of glory (24:7-10 ). Understanding what we are told in the Old Testament helps us understand the New Testament. The Kingdom of God in the Old Testament (Inglés) Pasta dura – 22 mayo 2010 por Archibald Robertson (Autor) Ver todos los formatos y ediciones Ocultar otros formatos y ediciones The kingdom of God in the Old Testament is marked by God’s righteous rule in justice. These characteristics of Christ’s reign obviously refer to earth. Zion is declared to be the source of the law (Mic 4:2). Old Testament Prophesies announce the coming of the Kingdom of God . �L�Ǽ���j��Ma�@�~�Y��7������J���VT���,��e��{�� He was among the false gods worshiped by Solomon at the close of his reign. Amen, and Amen” (v. 19 ). Then Jerusalem will be called the City of Truth, and the mountain of the LORD of hosts will be called the Holy Mountain. THE INAUGURATION OF THE KINGDOM OF GOD. This passage, like Isaiah 9:6-7, views both advents of Christ together. “In that day I will raise up the fallen booth of David, and wall up its breaches; I will also raise up its ruins, and rebuild it as in the days of old” (Amos 9:11). The fall of Jerusalem and destruction of the temple in 586 BC marked the end of the L ORD ’s Old Testament kingdom. I will also plant them on their land, and they will not again be rooted out from their land which I have given them, says the LORD your God (9:14-15 ). Reformed theology has traditionally attached much theological value to this topic, whereas modern research is questioning the centrality of the theme. When Jesus rode into Jerusalemon a donkey, I. Moloch, Molech, and Molek were variations of this false god. The masterful chapter on “The Kingdom Concept in the Old Testament” by J. Dwight Pentecost in his work, Things to Come,1 sets forth in a comprehensive way the doctrine of the kingdom of God in the Old Testament. %PDF-1.7 %���� Familiar predictions of Jerusalem as the center of God’s kingdom and the presence of the Lord and His blessing on His people are again emphasized in this prophecy. Amillenarians in their interpretation of millennial passages have several alternative explanations: (1) they declare them conditional and therefore never to be fulfilled; (2) they declare them historical and already fulfilled; or (3) when historical fulfillment is doubtful, they say they will be fulfilled in the new earth. Although the specific term “kingdom of God” is rare in the Old Testament, the idea which underlies this term is found everywhere: Yahweh, our God, is eternal King and Lord for ever and ever. Christ’s own references to the kingdom of God were not new—the concept was a central, constant part of God’s revelation to Israel from the beginning. Again Adams writes, “Come to a millennial city? Professor of Old Testament … h��VQO�0�+��v'��*���I�!R�i��К6R�TM������Ɣn�e�&뚳�|�s�/�4 Clearly, Jesus' hearers had some con­cept of "kingdom" which rested on their Old Testament upbringing, and they would have recognized Jesus' words as a claim that the hope or expectation of … The Christian characterization of the relationship between God and humanity involves the notion of the "Kingship of God", whose origins go back to the Old Testament, and may be seen as a consequence of the creation of the world by God. 286-87). God's kingdom in the Old Testament by Hopkins, Martin K Publication date 1964 Topics Bible. Everyone familiar with the Bible knows that the books of the … From a very early period the Old Testament had con-trasted the people of God … Unfortunately, in spite of the comprehensive presentation in this chapter, as well as numerous other books that set forth the doctrine of the kingdom in the Old Testament, amillenarians have repeatedly stated that the Bible nowhere teaches a future kingdom on earth.2 Rather than leave such statements unchallenged, it seems best to review briefly the specific contribution of the Old Testament to the premillennial interpretation of a future kingdom on earth. Christ will nevertheless reign over Jerusalem when He returns again, “and His dominion will be from sea to sea” (9:10 ). III. 93 0 obj <> endobj 98 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[]/Index[93 15]/Info 92 0 R/Length 48/Prev 613140/Root 94 0 R/Size 108/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream But His crucifixion followed. “And I, the LORD, will be their God, and My servant David will be prince among them; I, the LORD, have spoken” (Ezek 34:24). Pentecost divides these confusing aspects of the kingdom of God into two categories, the eternal kingdom and the theocratic kingdom.4 As Pentecost and others have noted, the theme of the theocratic kingdom can be traced from the Garden of Eden through the period of human government initiated by Noah, the period of the patriarchs initiated by Abraham, the kingdom under the judges, the kingdom under the kings, and finally the kingdom under the prophets.5 Although interpretations of these aspects of the kingdom of God vary in differing systems of eschatology, the primary problem of interpretation is found in the theocratic kingdom under the prophets. A reading of the many Old Testament passages previously quoted reveals that they do not disappear simply because a footnote says a literal interpretation is impossible and a nonliteral interpretation is “of course” the only proper one. This idea of God as king was that he is the leader of the nation in war, the judge and shepherd of the people in peace. Understanding what we are told in the Old Testament helps us understand the New Testament. As in many other promises of the coming kingdom, nothing in history or in the contemporary spiritual situation parallels these prophecies, or in any sense provides a reasonable fulfillment. A main concept in the Old Testament Christ’s own references to the kingdom of God were not new—the concept was a central, constant part of God’s revelation to Israel from the beginning. The writer has sought to do that in his work, The Millennial Kingdom, which is confirmed by the extensive work of J. Dwight Pentecost, Things to Come, both of which have been mentioned earlier. Professor of Old Testament The Masters Seminary God's kingdom was fundamental to the faith of ancient Israel. The Old Testament teaching on God’s kingdom is the necessary context for making sense of Jesus’ teaching and preaching, especially His announcement that the kingdom of God was “at hand” . In this respect, the notions of creation and covenant are of special interest. As in other millennial passages, nothing in history, in the present age, nor in the eternal new earth corresponds to these events. Of course not.”10 Why does he say, “Of course not”? THE KINGDOM OF GOD IN THE OLD TESTAMENT 173 MSJ 23/2 (Fall 2012) 173192 THE KINGDOM OF GOD IN THE OLD TESTAMENT William D. Barrick, Th.D. Right from the start, God wanted the nation of Israel to be His The Kingdom of God: A Guide for Old Testament Study [Francis Breisch Jr.] on Amazon.com. The question remains whether there is a future form of the kingdom that will also be theocratic, political, and on earth. That kingdom will not be one of earthly, material felicity and blessing, but spiritual. Many understand Psalms 45 and 46 to refer to the reign of Christ. Many other Old Testament passages bring confirming evidence to these passages that have been quoted. Martin J. Selman . Hoekema states, “That the millennial reign depicted in Revelation 20:4-6 occurs before the Second Coming of Christ is evident from the fact that the final judgment, described in verses 11-15 of this chapter, is pictured as coming after the thousand-year reign….it is obvious that the thousand-year reign of Revelation 20:4-6 must occur before and not after the Second Coming of Christ” (Anthony A. Hoekema, The Bible and the Future [Grand Rapids: Wm. King of Israel, predicted that David would return was that king, but future. 1 J. 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The Scripture renders one universal resurrection promises find their fulfillment in the 8th B.C.! Nation will not be one of earthly, material felicity and blessing, but concept! Of Matthew, Mark, and yet repeatedly, Jesus says, “ Come to a millennial?.